Medical Marijuana, Inc. Featured in L.A. Weekly Profile Story Covering Historic Export Agreements With Mexico, Other Latin American Nations

SAN DIEGO, CA—(Marketwired – December 29, 2016) – Medical Marijuana, Inc. (OTC PINK: MJNA), the first–ever publicly traded cannabis company in the United States, today announced that the Company, its subsidiary HempMeds® Mexico and its products were featured in an L.A. Weekly article focused on the first–ever import permit granted by Mexico for the cannabidiol (CBD) oil product Real Scientific Hemp Oil–X™ (RSHO–X™).

The Dec. 23, 2016, article titled “Mexico Begins Importing Medical Marijuana As Views on Therapeutic Cannabis Evolve” states, “The California–based company's partnership with Mexico — an ally of particular interest thanks to cultural and historical ties that date back centuries — was solidified earlier this year when COFEPRIS, the Mexican health department, approved the country's first permit allowing the import of hemp–based CBD oil across its border.” The article goes on to describe how the company worked with attorneys representing families — who then worked with COFEPRIS to develop a “THC–free” version, called RSHO–X™.

The article continues: “But in Mexico, cannabis–based treatment is viewed with suspicion and remains highly taboo. So when the Maldonado family discovered that another Mexican family had a child with the same kind of affliction, the two families combined their efforts and participated in a series of congressional hearings in Mexico City in January. On February 1, 2016, they were rewarded when COFEPRIS granted permits for the little girls to receive CBD treatments from abroad.”

“We are very humbled to have this opportunity,” the L.A. Weekly article quoted Medical Marijuana, Inc. CEO Dr. Stuart Titus as saying. “Today, we remain the only legal cannabis–based products allowed into the country and remain the only Botanical CBD company with a COFEPRIS import permit.”

The article also discussed Medical Marijuana, Inc. subsidiary HempMeds® Brasil receiving the first–ever import permit from the federal government of Brazil, stating: “Brazil has a similar arrangement with Medical Marijuana, Inc., whose hemp oil was first allowed in the country in 2014 on a case–by–case basis for the treatment of chronic pain, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.”

“We helped educate the government [in Brazil] and, going further, the government saw this product actually helped control these seizure disorders. Since there wasn't a good pharmaceutical medication, the regulatory officials declared it would be “inhumane” to keep these products from the patients,” Titus was quoted as saying.

About Medical Marijuana, Inc.

Our mission is to be the premier cannabis and hemp industry innovators, leveraging our team of professionals to source, evaluate and purchase value–added companies and products, while allowing them to keep their integrity and entrepreneurial spirit. We strive to create awareness within our industry, develop environmentally–friendly, economically sustainable businesses, while increasing shareholder value. For details on Medical Marijuana, Inc.'s portfolio and investment companies, visit www.medicalmarijuanainc.com.

To see Medical Marijuana, Inc.'s video statement, click here. Shareholders are also encouraged to visit the Medical Marijuana, Inc. Shop for discounted products.

About HempMeds® Mexico

HempMeds® Mexico is a Mexico–based company that made history by being the first company to receive a COFEPRIS federal government import permit for the cannabis product RSHO–X™ for a medical indication. HempMeds® Mexico plans to work directly with the Mexican government to safely and legally provide access to CBD hemp oil products. For more information, please review the company's website at: http://www.hempmeds.mx.

About HempMeds® Brasil

HempMeds® Brasil currently has three cannabis products approved for importation into Brazil as a prescription medication for Epilepsy, Parkinson's and Chronic Pain. The company had the first–ever cannabis product allowed for import into Brazil and its products are currently subsidized by the Brazilian government, under their health care system, for all three medical indications listed above. HempMeds® Brasil is working on additional approvals for multiple indications.

FORWARD–LOOKING DISCLAIMER

This press release may contain certain forward–looking statements and information, as defined within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and is subject to the Safe Harbor created by those sections. This material contains statements about expected future events and/or financial results that are forward–looking in nature and subject to risks and uncertainties. Such forward–looking statements by definition involve risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Medical Marijuana, Inc. to be materially different from the statements made herein.

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) DISCLOSURE

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any disease.

LEGAL DISCLOSURE

Medical Marijuana, Inc. does not sell or distribute any products that are in violation of the United States Controlled Substances Act (US.CSA). These companies do grow, sell, and distribute hemp–based products and are involved with the federally legal distribution of medical marijuana–based products within certain international markets. Cannabidiol is a natural constituent of hemp oil.

Medical Marijuana, Inc. Featured in L.A. Weekly Profile Story Covering Historic Export Agreements With Mexico, Other Latin American Nations

SAN DIEGO, CA—(Marketwired – December 29, 2016) – Medical Marijuana, Inc. (OTC PINK: MJNA), the first–ever publicly traded cannabis company in the United States, today announced that the Company, its subsidiary HempMeds® Mexico and its products were featured in an L.A. Weekly article focused on the first–ever import permit granted by Mexico for the cannabidiol (CBD) oil product Real Scientific Hemp Oil–X™ (RSHO–X™).

The Dec. 23, 2016, article titled “Mexico Begins Importing Medical Marijuana As Views on Therapeutic Cannabis Evolve” states, “The California–based company's partnership with Mexico — an ally of particular interest thanks to cultural and historical ties that date back centuries — was solidified earlier this year when COFEPRIS, the Mexican health department, approved the country's first permit allowing the import of hemp–based CBD oil across its border.” The article goes on to describe how the company worked with attorneys representing families — who then worked with COFEPRIS to develop a “THC–free” version, called RSHO–X™.

The article continues: “But in Mexico, cannabis–based treatment is viewed with suspicion and remains highly taboo. So when the Maldonado family discovered that another Mexican family had a child with the same kind of affliction, the two families combined their efforts and participated in a series of congressional hearings in Mexico City in January. On February 1, 2016, they were rewarded when COFEPRIS granted permits for the little girls to receive CBD treatments from abroad.”

“We are very humbled to have this opportunity,” the L.A. Weekly article quoted Medical Marijuana, Inc. CEO Dr. Stuart Titus as saying. “Today, we remain the only legal cannabis–based products allowed into the country and remain the only Botanical CBD company with a COFEPRIS import permit.”

The article also discussed Medical Marijuana, Inc. subsidiary HempMeds® Brasil receiving the first–ever import permit from the federal government of Brazil, stating: “Brazil has a similar arrangement with Medical Marijuana, Inc., whose hemp oil was first allowed in the country in 2014 on a case–by–case basis for the treatment of chronic pain, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease.”

“We helped educate the government [in Brazil] and, going further, the government saw this product actually helped control these seizure disorders. Since there wasn't a good pharmaceutical medication, the regulatory officials declared it would be “inhumane” to keep these products from the patients,” Titus was quoted as saying.

About Medical Marijuana, Inc.

Our mission is to be the premier cannabis and hemp industry innovators, leveraging our team of professionals to source, evaluate and purchase value–added companies and products, while allowing them to keep their integrity and entrepreneurial spirit. We strive to create awareness within our industry, develop environmentally–friendly, economically sustainable businesses, while increasing shareholder value. For details on Medical Marijuana, Inc.'s portfolio and investment companies, visit www.medicalmarijuanainc.com.

To see Medical Marijuana, Inc.'s video statement, click here. Shareholders are also encouraged to visit the Medical Marijuana, Inc. Shop for discounted products.

About HempMeds® Mexico

HempMeds® Mexico is a Mexico–based company that made history by being the first company to receive a COFEPRIS federal government import permit for the cannabis product RSHO–X™ for a medical indication. HempMeds® Mexico plans to work directly with the Mexican government to safely and legally provide access to CBD hemp oil products. For more information, please review the company's website at: http://www.hempmeds.mx.

About HempMeds® Brasil

HempMeds® Brasil currently has three cannabis products approved for importation into Brazil as a prescription medication for Epilepsy, Parkinson's and Chronic Pain. The company had the first–ever cannabis product allowed for import into Brazil and its products are currently subsidized by the Brazilian government, under their health care system, for all three medical indications listed above. HempMeds® Brasil is working on additional approvals for multiple indications.

FORWARD–LOOKING DISCLAIMER

This press release may contain certain forward–looking statements and information, as defined within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and is subject to the Safe Harbor created by those sections. This material contains statements about expected future events and/or financial results that are forward–looking in nature and subject to risks and uncertainties. Such forward–looking statements by definition involve risks, uncertainties and other factors, which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of Medical Marijuana, Inc. to be materially different from the statements made herein.

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION (FDA) DISCLOSURE

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any disease.

LEGAL DISCLOSURE

Medical Marijuana, Inc. does not sell or distribute any products that are in violation of the United States Controlled Substances Act (US.CSA). These companies do grow, sell, and distribute hemp–based products and are involved with the federally legal distribution of medical marijuana–based products within certain international markets. Cannabidiol is a natural constituent of hemp oil.

Envision Solar's CEO Desmond Wheatley Selected as one of the Responsible 100 Winners by City & State Reports

SAN DIEGO, CA—(Marketwired – December 22, 2016) – Envision Solar International, Inc., (OTCQB: EVSI) (“Envision Solar,” or the “Company”), the leading renewable energy, outdoor advertising, EV charging and energy security product company, announced today that Desmond Wheatley, CEO was selected as one of 'The Responsible 100' by City & State, a media company devoted solely to covering government and politics in New York.

The Responsible 100 honors business and government leaders who are committed to corporate social responsibility. All of the winners were honored at a luncheon at Hebrew Union College on December 15, which included a keynote speech by New York City Comptroller Scott Stringer and the release of City & State's Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) annual report, including profiles of the top honorees and research and analysis on major trends in CSR.

“I am honored to be selected for this prestigious honor by City & State,” said Desmond Wheatley, CEO of Envision Solar. “My role in being a responsible corporate citizen is that my company invented the world's only transportable solar powered EV charging station. We invent, engineer and manufacture products in our San Diego facility where our team of combat veterans, disabled workers and other valuable team members proudly integrate the highest quality components into our Made in America products. It allows EVs to be truly emissions free and it does not cause any environmental impact when it's deployed.”

About Envision Solar International, Inc.

Envision Solar designs and manufactures unique, renewably energized, EV charging, outdoor advertising and energy security products including the patented EV ARC™ and the patented Solar Tree® products. Enhancements include EnvisionTrak™ patented solar tracking, SunCharge™ Column Integrated Electric Vehicle Charging Stations and ARC™ technology energy storage solutions.

Based in San Diego, the company integrates the highest quality components into its Made in America products. Envision Solar is listed on the OTC Bulletin Board under the symbol [EVSI]. For more information, visit www.envisionsolar.com or call 866–746–0514.

Forward–Looking Statements

This Press Release may contain forward–looking statements regarding future events or our expected future results that are subject to inherent risks and uncertainties. All statements in this Report other than statements of historical facts are forward looking statements. Forward looking statements are generally accompanied by terms or phrases such as “estimate,” “project,” “predict,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “target,” “plan,” “intend,” “seek,” “goal,” “will,” “should,” “may,” or other words and similar expressions that convey the uncertainty of future events or results. Statements contemplating or making assumptions regarding actual or potential sales, market size and demand, prospective business contracts, customer orders, trends or operating results also constitute forward looking statements. Our actual results may differ substantially from those indicated in forward looking statements because our business is subject to significant economic, competitive, regulatory, business and industry risks which are difficult to predict and many of which are beyond our control. Our operating results, financial condition and business performance may be adversely affected by a general decline in the economy, unavailability of capital or financing for our prospective customers to purchase products and services from us, competition, changes in regulations, a decline in the demand for solar energy, a lack of profitability, a decline in our stock price, and other risks. We may not have adequate capital, financing or cash flow to sustain our business or implement our business plans. Current results and trends are not necessarily indicative of future results that we may achieve.

Stop worrying about ‘Doing Business’ ranking

Garment workers in Bangladesh. Should Bangladeshis, Malaysians and others worry about their countries’ downward slide in the ‘Doing Business’ ranking?  Credit: IPS

Garment workers in Bangladesh. Should Bangladeshis, Malaysians and others worry about their countries’ downward slide in the ‘Doing Business’ ranking? Credit: IPS

By Anis Chowdhury and Jomo Kwame Sundaram
SYDNEY and KUALA LUMPUR, Dec 22 2016 (IPS)

Without any hint of irony, the World Bank’s most recent Doing Business Report 2017 promises ‘Equal Opportunity for All’. Bangladesh ranked 176th among 190 economies, below civil war-ravaged Iraq and Syria! Bangladesh even slipped two places from 174 in the 2016 ranking and is three places below its 2015 ranking.

Malaysia, too, slipped five places. The Doing Business Report (DBR) 2017 ranked Malaysia at 23, down from 18 in the previous two reports for 2015 and 2016. Incredibly, this had nothing to do with news of the biggest scandal ever in the country’s history.

Malaysia seems to have slipped because, it had “made starting a business more difficult by requiring that companies with an annual revenue of more than MYR 500,000 register as a GST payer,” and made tax payments more complex “by replacing sales tax with GST”.

Previously, Malaysia was recognized in DBR 2016 for reducing the property tax rate from 12% to 10% of the annual rental value for commercial properties in 2014, even though this contributed negatively to overall government revenue or public finance.

Thus, ‘be damned if you do, and be damned if you don’t’. Countries are asked to raise domestic revenue, but stand to slip in their rankings if they act to raise tax revenues. Taxation may reduce the incentive to invest, but low tax revenue would also hurt the business environment if it reduces government revenue needed to finance public infrastructure, education, healthcare and business services.

Rankings

Should Bangladeshis, Malaysians and others worry about their countries’ downward slide in the ‘Doing Business’ ranking? Should those doing better be elated about their elevation in the rankings? The simple answer is ‘no’, but it really depends.

What do the rankings imply? How does the World Bank compare countries with very different economic structures at different stages of development and with varied capabilities address very diverse problems? By ranking countries, the DBR ignores their heterogeneity and essentially treats them as comparable on a single scale.

This serious methodological problem was pointed out by an independent panel in 2013, headed by South Africa’s Vice President and former finance minister Trevor Manuel. It concluded that “The Doing Business report has the potential to be misinterpreted…. It should not be viewed as providing a one-size-fits-all template for development…. The evidence in favour of specific country reforms is contingent on many auxiliary factors not captured by Doing Business report topics.”

By ranking countries, the DBR ignores their heterogeneity and essentially treats them as comparable on a single scale. This serious methodological problem was pointed out by an independent panel in 2013, headed by South Africa’s Vice President and former finance minister Trevor Manuel.
The panel also noted that “the act of ranking countries may appear devoid of value judgement, but it is, in reality, an arbitrary method of summarising vast amounts of complex information as a single number.” It recommended dropping the overall aggregate ranking from the report.

The independent panel had been set up by the Bank in response to heavy criticism of the DBR. Yet, the Bank has chosen to ignore most of the independent panel’s recommendations, especially to drop overall country rankings.

In response to criticisms of overall country ranking, the Bank added a ‘distance to frontier’ measure. Thus, instead of the ordinal measures used for ranking, the ostensible (cardinal) ‘distance’ from the best performance measure for each indicator became the new basis for ranking.

Yet, it does not address the main concern – heterogeneous countries cannot be ranked mechanically. Thus, not surprisingly, the best performers are rich, developed countries.

Ignoring criticisms

Besides the external panel, the World Bank also ignored much of its own internal review. For example, its legal unit has been uneasy about the DBR process and findings.

The unit’s September 2012 internal review of the 2013 DBR questioned the ranking’s ‘manipulation’ and noted the ‘embedded policy preferences’ underlying some indicators. It went so far as to accuse the DBR of bias as it ‘tends to ignore the positive effects of regulation’.

For example, the ‘starting a business’ indicator uses the limited liability corporate form as the only ‘proxy’ for business creation. The legal unit considered this approach ‘deceptive’ as there is no evidence that easing “company formation rules leads to increases in business creation”.

The Bank’s legal unit also argued that the DBR methodology is seriously flawed, highlighting ‘black box’ data gaps, ‘cherry picking’ background papers, and ‘double counting’. The legal team even asked, “are high income the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries placed higher in the Doing Business rankings because they have implemented the (types of) reforms advocated by the report?” In its 26 September 2015 issue, The Economist, usually a cheerleader for pro-business reforms, argued that the DBR ranking did not provide a reliable guide to investors.

Countries have perversely amended regulations to try to improve their ranking in order to impress donors or prospective foreign investors, rather than to actually increase investments and growth. Countries are also likely to do more to favour foreign investments, rather than domestic investments, which are generally more likely to contribute to sustainable development.

Biases

The DBR survey is generally biased against regulations and taxes. Following earlier criticisms, ease of hiring and firing workers and flexibility of working hours are no longer used in the overall ranking, but nonetheless remain in the report, highlighting the authors’ appreciation of such regulations. Conversely, the DBR continues to look unfavourably on a country which seeks to enhance workplace regulations by improving wages, working conditions or occupational safety, or by allowing workers in export processing zones to unionize.

Surprisingly, the DBR does not cover security, corruption, market size, financial stability, infrastructure, skills and other important elements often deemed important for attracting business investments. Moreover, many DBR indicators are considered to be quite superficial. For example, the survey’s credit market indicator does not reflect how well credit is allocated. Similarly, the DBR survey focuses on how difficult it is to get electricity connected without taking into account the state of electricity generation or distribution, which often depends on a country’s level of development.

The DBR approach is very ‘legalistic’ as it mainly looks at formal regulations without considering how such regulations affect SMEs or other investors besides the stereotypical foreign investor. It also ignores, norms and other institutions including extra-legal processes. For example, Mary Hallward-Driemeier of the World Bank and Lant Pritchett of Harvard compared the DBR with the Bank’s firm surveys. They found large gaps between the DBR report and reality.

They also found ‘almost zero correlation’ between DB findings and other Bank surveys of business enterprises. For instance, the average amount of time that companies report spending on three tasks — obtaining construction permits, getting operating licenses and importing goods — is ‘much, much less’ than those cited in the DBR. [http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.29.3.121]

Pritchett, who once worked for the Bank, has argued that developing country policy makers focusing on improving their DBR rankings could divert scarce resources away from more important and urgent reforms, e.g., to help the government better administer, implement and enforce business regulations.

“The pretense that Doing Business measures the real rules, and that if we just modestly improve these Doing Business indicators, they would somehow become the reality of what the rules are and how business is really done — I think that’s a very dangerous fiction.” [http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/2015/08/04/is-the-world-banks-doing-business-report-at-odds-with-how-business-is-done-in-the-developing-world/].

In sum, the DBR assumes that there are universally ‘good’ and ‘bad’ policies regardless of context. This approach clearly misses the need for concrete analysis in specific contexts. Not surprisingly, the DBR continues to promote deregulation as the best strategy for promoting economic growth. To be fair, the Bank acknowledges that the DBR should not be seen as advocating a one-size-fits-all model, but the Bank’s own promotion and coverage of the report suggests otherwise.

Security Council Vote on Israeli Settlements Postponed Indefinitely

The UN Security Council has indefinitely postponed a vote on a draft resolution demanding an end to Israeli settlements. Hours before the Security Council was scheduled to vote, Egypt pulled the Arab-backed resolution from the table, making no indications of when or if it will be brought back up. The resolution condemned the “construction and […]

Climate Change Needn’t Spell Doom for Uganda’s Coffee Farmers

Nursery operators raise improved Robusta coffee seedlings in Uganda. Credit: IITA

Nursery operators raise improved Robusta coffee seedlings in Uganda. Credit: IITA

By Sally Nyakanyanga
KAMPALA, Dec 22 2016 (IPS)

Coffee production provides a quarter of Uganda’s foreign exchange earnings and supports some 1.7 million smallholder farmers, but crop yields are being undermined by disease, pests and inadequate services from agricultural extension officers, as well as climatic changes in the East African country.

The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), one of the world’s leading research partners in finding solutions for hunger, malnutrition, and poverty, is playing a key role in overcoming these challenges with simple, efficient practices like planting shade trees to protect coffee plants that require a cooler tropical climate.“The knowledge I’ve received towards adapting to farming that suits the changes in the climate, such as intercropping and planting shade trees, has transformed my life.” –Coffee farmer Cathrine Ojara

Mujabi Yusuf, 41, a coffee farmer in the Nakaseke District of Central Uganda, told IPS prolonged droughts and unpredictable rainfall had been major setbacks.

“I have fed my family and sent them to school through coffee farming, but the weather has failed us,” says Yusuf. “Buying farming inputs such as fertilizer is a challenge because it’s expensive, yet for some time my farming production has been decreasing.”

Uganda has the largest population of coffee farmers in the world, yet 2 percent of its exports are not certified. It is Africa’s largest Robusta producer, accounting for 7 percent of global Robusta exports. The cost of production is low as a result of smallholder farmers using family labour and few inputs.

“Seasons have changed and become unpredictable. The rains sometimes come but for a short period. This has resulted in leaves wilting and eventually dying,” says Kironde Mayanja, a coffee farmer from Central Uganda.

“Drought stress, pests and diseases, poor quality of inputs, inadequate extension services and financial constraints inhibits farmers from adapting efficiently in Uganda,” says Elizabeth Kemigisha, IITA Communications Officer.

“There is a global awareness that if agricultural research for development is to have a positive impact on the beneficiaries of development efforts, all stakeholders in the process need to be on the same page. All stakeholders can all contribute to address the challenges of agricultural development and food security for all,” Kemigisha told IPS.

IITA generates evidence-based solutions such as a shade tree tool, farmer profiles and segmentation, new crop varieties, intercropping coffee and banana, as well as appropriate investment pathways for various stakeholders.

“Our research is used by non-governmental organisations and the private sector, and we work closely with governments, particularly National Agricultural Research Organisations (NARO). IITA has worked with HRNS as an implementing partner to conduct studies to enhance local knowledge on climate change adaptation in coffee growing,” Kemigisha said.

David Senyonjo, the Field Operations Manager in charge of climate change at HRNS, says his organization promotes and provides technical support for coffee production by working with smallholder coffee farmers.

“Research has helped to enhance farmers’ resilience to the adverse effects of climate change by providing them with the know-how to adapt to the changing climatic conditions,” says Senyonjo.

Cathrine Ojara, a female coffee farmer, is one such success story.

“The knowledge I’ve received towards adapting to farming that suits the changes in the climate, such as intercropping and planting shade trees, has transformed my life,” she says.

Ojara said she has been able to send her children to school and improve her household, as well as establish extra income through projects such as poultry.

Mayanja, who has an eight-acre farm, with the help of HRNS Africa has adopted new farming methods and his yields have increased from 20 to 50 percent.

“We have received training that has made me an expert in climate change and I have put to good use what I learnt to improve our crops. I have been practicing mulching, planting and managing shade trees, using fertilizers, digging water trenches and irrigation,” Mayanja told IPS.

Senyonjo noted that women face additional difficulties. “[They have a] lack of control over production resources like land, which in most cases is a prerequisite to having access to credit, hence women are less likely to use yield enhancing inputs like fertilisers,” he said.

“We don’t have our own land and due to time constraints and domestic responsibilities, we are unable to attend trainings on climate change,” Ojara told IPS.

While women do most of the farm labor, they only own 16 percent of the arable land in Uganda.

Hannington Bukomeko, a scientist with the IITA, said effective adaptation to climate change among coffee farmers requires low-cost and multipurpose solutions such as agroforestry, a practice of intercropping coffee with trees.

IITA has developed a shade tree advice tool, offering the best selection criteria for suitable tree species that provide various ecosystems services in different local conditions.

“Shade trees are one of the climate change adaptation practice we recommend for farmers. Shades modify the micro-environment so that it reduces the intensity of sunshine hitting the coffee plant as well as evaporation of water from the soil,” says Senyonjo.

Bukomeko explained that the tool helps coffee farmers to identify appropriate tree-selection.  “Farmers lack the knowledge on selecting the appropriate tree species, lack the tools and technical support to summarize such information to guide on-farm tree selection,” Bukomeko told IPS.

According to Bukomeko, the shade tree tool relies on local agro-forestry knowledge and scientific assessments of local on-farm tree diversity. “Users of the tool can identify their location in terms of country, province and ecological zone, select their desired ecosystem services and rank them according to preference. In return, the tool advises the user on the best tree options for a given location and ecosystem services,” says Bukomeko.

The shade tree tool was tested and validated for the studied regions, and found to serve the purpose of guiding on-farm tree selection for coffee farmers, according to IITA.

“Through government and other partners, the tool can be used by extension workers who will have mobile devices that can access the application tool,” says Kemigisha.

IITA has also conducted research on banana/plantain, cocoa, cowpea, maize, yam, and soy bean.