Bombardier Announces the Election of its Board of Directors

MONTRÉAL, May 05, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Bombardier announces that all nominees in its management proxy circular dated March 14, 2022, were elected as directors of Bombardier Inc. during its annual and special meeting of shareholders held earlier today. Detailed results of the ballot for the election of directors are below.

Election of Directors
Following a vote, each of the following 13 candidates proposed by management was elected a director of Bombardier:

Candidates Votes For % For Votes Withheld % Withheld
Pierre Beaudoin 3 261 710 606 97.47 84 539 041 2.53
Joanne Bissonnette 3 297 721 536 98.55 48 528 111 1.45
Charles Bombardier 3 295 258 443 98.48 50 991 204 1.52
Diane Fontaine 3 286 159 634 98.20 60 090 013 1.80
Ji–Xun Foo 3 323 408 612 99.32 22 841 035 0.68
Diane Giard 3 272 496 656 97.80 73 752 429 2.20
Anthony R. Graham 3 300 720 730 98.64 45 528 917 1.36
August W. Henningsen 3 321 026 470 99.25 25 223 177 0.75
ric Martel 3 317 021 064 99.13 29 228 567 0.87
Douglas R. Oberhelman 3 267 760 032 97.65 78 489 615 2.35
Melinda Rogers–Hixon 3 285 199 301 98.18 61 050 330 1.82
Eric Sprunk 3 309 508 008 98.90 36 741 639 1.10
Antony N. Tyler 3 296 433 869 98.51 49 815 778 1.49

About Bombardier
Bombardier is a global leader in aviation, focused on designing, manufacturing and servicing the world's most exceptional business jets. Bombardier's Challenger and Global aircraft families are renowned for their cutting–edge innovation, cabin design, performance and reliability. Bombardier has a worldwide fleet of approximately 5 000 aircraft in service with a wide variety of multinational corporations, charter and fractional ownership providers, governments and private individuals. Bombardier aircraft are also trusted around the world in special–mission roles.

Headquartered in Montral, Qubec, Bombardier operates aerostructure, assembly and completion facilities in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The company's robust customer support network includes facilities in strategic locations in the United States and Canada, as well as in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, the UAE, Singapore, China and an Australian facility opening in 2022.

For corporate news and information, including Bombardier's Environmental, Social and Governance report, visit Learn more about Bombardier's industry–leading products and customer service network at Follow us on Twitter @Bombardier.

Bombardier is a registered trademark of Bombardier Inc. or its subsidiaries.

For Information

Francis Richer de La Flche
Vice President, Financial Planning
and Investor Relations
+514 855 5001 x13228
Anna Cristofaro
Communications and Public Affairs
+514 855 8678

The Solution to Simple Crypto Mining is Here

HELSINKI, Finland, May 05, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Dual Miners ( have crossed the $45million USD mark on orders and pre–sales. The newly introduced mining rigs by Dual Miners have surpassed what we currently have in the cryptocurrency market. The reason is not farfetched; with this innovation, they have made mining distinct and simple. What makes it even easier is the installation manual that comes with the machine. You don't have to be a veteran in technology to understand how it works.

Due to advances in ASIC chip technology, Dual Miners Ltd has developed three solutions that are pre–configured for ease of use and promise a return on investment in as little as one month. The company, which is led by some of the most experienced specialists in the Cryptocurrency mining industry, is based in the United Kingdom.

According to a corporate statement, the company's current offerings include DualPro, DualPro Max, and the most recent DualPremium, all of which are designed to support lucrative operations on the blockchain of choice.

Founded in London, Dual Miners is a chip design and manufacturing company that has offices in Finland, South Korea, and Australia in addition to its home base in the United Kingdom. It has a number of teams with in–depth knowledge on a variety of topics, including Blockchain technology and technological design, among others.

Consumers can purchase graphics processing units from the company, which also provides crypto wallet development services. The company has offices on three different continents. The fact that Dual Miners has accumulated a substantial amount of market experience has earned it a reputable reputation in the Blockchain business.

So as a result, Dual Miners will pay the costs of shipping as well as import tariffs, allowing consumers to spend no more than the cost of the gadget and yet receive everything they need to get started without incurring additional expenditures.

Concerning Dual Miners

Founded in 2015 with the intention of developing and marketing the world's first leading dual Cryptocurrency miners that use either SHA–256 or Scrypt technology. The company claims to be the world's first dual mining enterprise. With the DualPro, we set out to give greater power at a lower cost than had previously been possible in the industry. Dual Miners is headquartered in London, United Kingdom, and has offices in several other cities across the world, including the United States. The company's website,, provides additional information on the company and its products.

More information can be found at

(+358) 41 4001034

A photo accompanying this announcement is available at–62d6–44ce–a80d–327bde2cd9cb

Cellebrite to Showcase Advanced Access as a Service at the Techno Security & Digital Forensics Conference

PETAH TIKVA, Israel and TYSONS CORNER, Va., May 05, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Cellebrite DI Ltd. (NASDAQ: CLBT), a global leader in Digital Intelligence (DI) solutions for the public and private sectors, today announced the upcoming release of the SaaS–based version of Cellebrite Premium. Cellebrite Premium is an industry leading advanced access solution, providing unlock and extract capabilities for most iOS as well as the leading Android devices. The new offering, which is part of Cellebrite's industry–leading DI suite of Solutions, will be previewed at the upcoming Techno Security & Digital Forensics Conference in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, from May 9th to May 12th, 2022.

The solution aims to allow law enforcement agencies to benefit from flexible licensing options and reduce ongoing hardware and maintenance costs. In addition, the SaaS–based version of Premium aims to provide agencies immediate access to the most up–to–date capabilities, allowing more law enforcement organizations to decentralize device access and data collection efforts as they work to expedite digital investigations and reduce case backlogs.

Ronnen Armon, Cellebrite's Chief Products & Technologies Officer, commented: "Law enforcement agencies of all sizes should have access to solutions that can help them combat continuously growing digital evidence challenges. We are committed to addressing our customer needs in the face of the ever–growing quantity, variety, and complexity of digital evidence, and enabling a flexible consumption of our most advanced capability is our latest innovation to achieve this goal. We look forward to continuing to partner with our customers to enable them to protect and save lives, accelerate justice, and preserve privacy in communities around the world."

For more information on Cellebrite Premium, please visit

About Cellebrite
Cellebrite's (NASDAQ: CLBT) mission is to enable its customers to protect and save lives, accelerate justice, and preserve privacy in communities around the world. We are a global leader in Digital Intelligence solutions for the public and private sectors, empowering organizations in mastering the complexities of legally sanctioned digital investigations by streamlining intelligence processes. Trusted by thousands of leading agencies and companies worldwide, Cellebrite's Digital Intelligence platform and solutions transform how customers collect, review, analyze and manage data in legally sanctioned investigations. To learn more visit us at,, or follow us on Twitter at @Cellebrite.

Caution Regarding Forward Looking Statements

This document includes "forward looking statements" within the meaning of the "safe harbor" provisions of the United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Forward looking statements may be identified by the use of words such as "forecast," "intend," "seek," "target," "anticipate," "will," "appear," "approximate," "foresee," "might," "possible," "potential," "believe," "could," "predict," "should," "could," "continue," "expect," "estimate," "may," "plan," "outlook," "future" and "project" and other similar expressions that predict, project or indicate future events or trends or that are not statements of historical matters. Such forward looking statements include estimated financial information. Such forward looking statements with respect to revenues, earnings, performance, strategies, prospects, and other aspects of Cellebrite's business are based on current expectations that are subject to risks and uncertainties. A number of factors could cause actual results or outcomes to differ materially from those indicated by such forward looking statements. These factors include, but are not limited to: Cellebrite's ability to keep pace with technological advances and evolving industry standards; Cellebrite's material dependence on the acceptance of its solutions by law enforcement and government agencies; real or perceived errors, failures, defects or bugs in Cellebrite's DI solutions; Cellebrite's failure to maintain the productivity of sales and marketing personnel, including relating to hiring, integrating and retaining personnel; uncertainties regarding the impact of macroeconomic and/or global conditions, including COVID–19 and military actions involving Russia and Ukraine; intense competition in all of Cellebrite's markets; the inadvertent or deliberate misuse of Cellebrite's solutions; political and reputational factors related to Cellebrite's business or operations; risks relating to estimates of market opportunity and forecasts of market growth; Cellebrite's ability to properly manage its growth; risks associated with Cellebrite's credit facilities and liquidity; Cellebrite's reliance on third–party suppliers for certain components, products, or services; challenges associated with large transactions and long sales cycle; risks that Cellebrite's customers may fail to honor contractual or payment obligations; risks associated with a significant amount of Cellebrite's business coming from government customers around the world; risks related to Cellebrite's intellectual property; security vulnerabilities or defects, including cyber–attacks, information technology system breaches, failures or disruptions; the mishandling or perceived mishandling of sensitive or confidential information; the complex and changing regulatory environments relating to Cellebrite's operations and solutions; the regulatory constraints to which we are subject; risks associated with different corporate governance requirements applicable to Israeli companies and risks associated with being a foreign private issuer and an emerging growth company; market volatility in the price of Cellebrite's shares; changing tax laws and regulations; risks associated with joint, ventures, partnerships and strategic initiatives; risks associated with Cellebrite's significant international operations; risks associated with Cellebrite's failure to comply with anti–corruption, trade compliance, anti–money–laundering and economic sanctions laws and regulations; risks relating to the adequacy of Cellebrite's existing systems, processes, policies, procedures, internal controls and personnel for Cellebrite's current and future operations and reporting needs; and other factors, risks and uncertainties set forth in the section titled "Risk Factors" in Cellebrite's annual report on form 20–F filed with the SEC on March 29, 2022 and in other documents filed by Cellebrite with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), which are available free of charge at You are cautioned not to place undue reliance upon any forward looking statements, which speak only as of the date made, in this communication or elsewhere. Cellebrite undertakes no obligation to update its forward looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise, should circumstances change, except as otherwise required by securities and other applicable laws.


Renee Soto
+1 212–433–4606

Anat Earon–Heilborn
VP Investor Relations
+972 73 394 8440

Ukraine’s EU Membership Ambition

UN Secretary-General António Guterres at a press encounter with the President of Ukraine in Kyiv, 28 April ’22. Credit: United Nations

By Nickolay Kapitonenko
KYIV, Ukraine, May 5 2022 – Before the war, Ukraine’s dream to become part of the EU was exactly that – a dream. But the new political reality could make it come true.

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine changed and to some extent even destroyed the familiar international political reality. Up until 24 February, Russia had been integrated into the global economy, had excellent growth prospects, and the construction of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline was almost finished.

Moreover, NATO had no intention of expanding in any direction and Ukraine joining the EU seemed to be a very long way off given the usual plethora of domestic problems the country was facing.

The Kremlin has chosen a calculated gamble to play to its own advantages, at great cost to many. Russia’s war against Ukraine is a profound crisis capable of dramatically changing how things pan out in the future, making certain developments highly probable which just two months ago seemed utterly implausible.

One such scenario relates to Ukraine’s EU membership. On 28 February in the besieged capital of Kyiv, the fate of which at that point was entirely unclear, President Zelenskyy signed a formal request to accede to the European Union along with a joint declaration with the prime minister and head of the Ukrainian parliament.

At that point, Kyiv had already been clinging on for four days, and the first doubts regarding Russia’s ability to wage a quick and successful campaign were beginning to plunge Europe into a state of strategic uncertainty.

Nickolay Kapitonenko

This was a great symbolic moment for Zelenskyy. For many Ukrainians, it was a light at the end of the tunnel, and for the EU it provided a potential basis for the future restructuring of the entire system of international security. And there is little doubt that the system needs restructuring.

In March 2014, a similar sense of symbolism and hope for the future accompanied the signing of the EU–Ukraine Association Agreement, less than a week after the Crimean status referendum and at the height of the complex and volatile revolutionary events in Kyiv.

This step made a crucial contribution to the consolidation of Ukrainian statehood, to the country’s vision for the future and to its fundamental system of values. Stripped of the hope of rapid accession to the EU – the fact that the Association Agreement never provided for membership is often called to mind in Europe – Ukraine could at least focus on realising the potential of the most extensive association agreement in history.

In 2022, the context of the negotiations regarding EU–Ukraine relations changed dramatically. From an ever-moving prospect, Ukraine’s integration into the EU became one of very few elements capable of making some form of progress when it came to resolving the conflict.

NATO is not an option

It is all about security guarantees. The Russian invasion forced Ukraine to prepare for the next war. No promises — whether written or verbal — would be enough. From now on, when it came to relations with Russia, any Ukrainian government would have to proceed on the basis of a worst-case scenario regarding the course of events.

The only way of preventing renewed aggression from Russia is either to rely on direct security guarantees, or to invest a significant share of resources in constructing and supporting effective, modern armed forces. Membership in NATO could also be an effective mechanism to guarantee security but this does not seem realistic and Russia has declared it a threat to its security.

The rationale that prevailed before the war continues to apply here: a high risk of direct conflict with Russia makes Ukraine’s aim of NATO accession more difficult. In light of this, there are ongoing discussions about security guarantees on the individual country level and even on a multilateral basis outside NATO.

This is a complex debate. Firstly, few are in a position to give such guarantees, especially when we are talking about a potential conflict with Russia. The US is probably the only country that could provide effective and credible guarantees. It is the only country with the capacity to project its military power to an extent that would deter Russia.

Secondly, there are not many countries that would be willing to provide security guarantees carrying such high future risks. That said, the West cannot afford to refuse a dialogue on the issue of security guarantees because a continuation of the conflict in its current state presents Europe with serious problems.

Membership of the European Union, on the other hand, does not seem to antagonise Russia in the same way. In its pre-war rhetoric, Moscow never raised the issue of EU expansion and never accused the EU of being a threat to its security. This creates a certain amount of scope to pursue other possibilities.

Of course, EU membership cannot be seen as providing a complete security guarantee. However, it is capable of increasing the costs of aggression for Russia and providing the prospect of recovery for Ukraine’s frail economy. Such recovery would be a precondition for Ukraine to be able to sustain effective defence capabilities.

An open door for European membership

Obviously, it is not as simple as this. At the conceptual level, and this is something many European officials have already pointed out, it is impossible to force EU membership, even with the ‘accelerated procedure’. It is a lengthy and complex process requiring coordination of a myriad aspects, from legislation to technical standards.

Even the most optimistic assessments of Ukrainian politicians and diplomats suggest that the process could take several years. Austria, Sweden, and Finland joined in record speed, and the process still took around four years. Since then, the situation has not got any easier, indeed it has arguably become more complex as the number of legal norms and standards within the EU has increased significantly.

Moreover, there is already a ‘queue’ of five other countries waiting to join. These are all undeniably relevant obstacles, given the strong impact of EU bureaucracy and procedures even in these exceptional circumstances.

At the political level, there must be a consensus among all the member states of the EU. The overall situation in Europe has changed so much that rather than the purely symbolic support provided before the war in the form of declarations signed by a number of European states, today there is a broad social consensus when it comes to Ukraine’s European future.

This consensus was already manifested in the official statements from heads of various Eastern European countries asserting that Ukraine deserved to be provided the immediate prospect of membership.

Public opinion throughout Europe is gradually leaning towards supporting this idea – this is also evident in the reactions of national parliaments to the addresses given by the Ukrainian president.

Today, there are very few European politicians who would formally object to the very idea of Ukraine having a future in Europe. Of course, the task will not necessarily be easy. The sympathy and empathy expressed by Europeans towards Ukraine now needs to be translated into political results.

Mobilising the support of the most influential EU member states – Germany and France – will be of critical importance. What is required here is extremely delicate diplomacy and a thorough understanding of Berlin’s and Paris’ interests.

This includes restoring European security. Furthermore, taking this path would require putting an end to old disagreements or, at the very least, map out the prospects of this being achieved.

A question of European security

Yet all the key arguments pertain to security matters. It is not just about Ukraine protecting Europe from Russian revisionism at the cost of so many lives — and how EU membership could serve as a gesture of recognition of the importance of the country’s contribution to European security.

The issue is also that this European security is unlikely to be possible if Ukraine, as before the war, continues to remain in Europe’s ‘grey zone’, without allies, guarantees or a certain future. The threats for Ukraine may not be the same threats as for Europe – however, since Russia’s invasion, everything has fundamentally changed.

In the two months since the start of the conflict, Ukraine is no better prepared for EU membership than before the war. For Europeans, Ukraine joining the EU will be associated with certain risks and problems. But something else has changed as well – the overall situation when it comes to European security.

A continuation of the war will cost Europe far more. The EU can no longer stand by and wait, it, too needs to find a way out of the war being waged by Russia.

If Ukraine is granted the candidate country status in June, this will be an encouraging signal for everyone. That which up until 24 February seemed an impossibility, would become a subject of discussion and an entirely realistic, albeit somewhat remote prospect.

Nickolay Kapitonenko is an associate professor at the Institute of International Relations at Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv and director of the Centre for International Relations Studies.

Source: International Politics and Society (IPS)-Journal published by the International Political Analysis Unit of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Hiroshimastrasse 28, D-10785 Berlin

IPS UN Bureau


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The Sun Illuminates the Nights of Rural Families in El Salvador

Francisca Piecho stands with her daughter-in-law Johana Cruz and her grandson outside her home that now has electricity from solar energy, in the village of Cacho de Oro, Teotepeque municipality, in the southern department of La Libertad. Hers and other rural Salvadoran families have seen their lives improve with the arrival not only of electricity but also of a reforestation program in the area. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

Francisca Piecho stands with her daughter-in-law Johana Cruz and her grandson outside her home that now has electricity from solar energy, in the village of Cacho de Oro, Teotepeque municipality, in the southern department of La Libertad. Hers and other rural Salvadoran families have seen their lives improve with the arrival not only of electricity but also of a reforestation program in the area. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

By Edgardo Ayala
TEOTEPEQUE, El Salvador , May 5 2022 – After working on the family farm, Carlos Salama comes home and plugs his cell phone into a socket via a solar-powered electrical system, a rarity in this rural village in southern El Salvador.

“Just being able to charge the phone with our own electricity, which comes from the sun, is a great thing for us,” the 29-year-old farmer who lives in Cacho de Oro, a rural settlement nestled in hills on the shores of the Pacific Ocean in Teotepeque municipality in the southern department of La Libertad, told IPS.

Salama’s mother, Rosa Aquino, was also enthusiastic about the electrical system installed in her home and 15 other houses in the village in late April.

“It feels good, we never had electricity… at night it makes you happy. When I was a child we used kerosene lanterns. And then battery lamps, and now we save what we used to spend on batteries,” Aquino, 45, told IPS.

Salvadoran farmer Carlos Salama recharges his cell phone by means of a solar energy system installed on the roof of the house where he lives in the village of Cacho de Oro, in the municipality of Teotepeque. Although the system does not support appliances that consume more than 500 watts, the families now have lightbulbs to use at night, can charge their cell phones and can use small appliances. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

Salvadoran farmer Carlos Salama recharges his cell phone by means of a solar energy system installed on the roof of the house where he lives in the village of Cacho de Oro, in the municipality of Teotepeque. Although the system does not support appliances that consume more than 500 watts, the families now have lightbulbs to use at night, can charge their cell phones and can use small appliances. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

Poverty in plain sight

Some 50 families live in Cacho de Oro, dedicated to subsistence agriculture. And although the village has had electricity from the national grid for some years now, nearly twenty families, the poorest, have not been able to afford the connection to the grid.

That was the case of the family of Francisca Piecho, a 43-year-old farmer who lives with her son and his wife and their little boy in a dirt-floor dwelling.

Piecho’s husband works in another area of the country cutting sugar cane, as he could not find work in Cacho de Oro.

The family could not afford to pay the 500 dollars it cost to connect to the national power line that had finally reached the village.

“Some families have relatives in other countries who send them remittances, but we don’t have any, and we couldn’t afford it,” Piecho told IPS, while stirring a stew on a wood stove.

Her son was not at home when IPS visited the village. But Piecho said he works in agriculture, mainly during the May to November rainy season, because in the dry season there is almost no work available.

The village of Cacho de Oro is perched on top of hills along the Pacific Ocean in southern El Salvador, a remote impoverished area where unemployment is particularly acute during the November to May dry season, when no agricultural work is available. The privatized electricity system has not connected these villages to the national grid because it is not profitable. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

The village of Cacho de Oro is perched on top of a hill along the Pacific Ocean in southern El Salvador, a remote impoverished area where unemployment is particularly acute during the November to May dry season, when no agricultural work is available. The privatized electricity system has not connected these villages to the national grid because it is not profitable. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

In El Salvador, electricity distribution has been privatized since 1998, and many rural villages do not have electric power because they are very small and the companies do not see investing there as good business.

According to official figures, 95.2 percent of households in rural areas have access to electricity, while 2.0 percent use candles, 0.8 percent use solar panels, 0.5 percent use kerosene, and 1.4 percent use other means.

Official data also shows that the average monthly household income in urban areas is 728 dollars compared to 435 dollars in rural areas.

But now the poorest families in Cacho de Oro also have electricity, and from a clean energy source, thanks to the solar power project brought to the village by the governmental Environmental Fund of El Salvador (Fonaes), at a cost of 16,000 dollars.

Staff from the municipal government in Jicalapa, in the southern Salvadoran department of La Libertad, explain to a group of residents from the village of Izcacuyo about the solar electrification project that began in December 2021, as well as the community reforestation effort. CREDIT: Municipality of Jicalapa

Staff from the municipal government in Jicalapa, in the southern Salvadoran department of La Libertad, explain to a group of residents from the village of Izcacuyo about the solar electrification project that began in December 2021, as well as the community reforestation effort. CREDIT: Municipality of Jicalapa

Solar energy to the rescue

Solar panels were installed on the rooftops of the houses of nearly twenty families. The panel provides just enough electric power to connect a couple of light bulbs, charge a cell phone and plug in small appliances that consume less than 500 watts.

“If the appliances consume more than that, it’s not enough to turn them on,” Arturo Solano, a technician with Tecnosolar, the company that supplied the panels, told IPS.

He added that there are approximately 100 community solar energy projects in rural El Salvador, a country of 6.7 million inhabitants. About 7,500 homes have been electrified with this clean energy source.

“You have to adapt to the system and buy appliances that are compatible with the power it supplies,” he said, adding that the amount of energy provided depends on the investment made, because if you want more power, you have to install more panels.

Even so, with this very basic electricity service, the residents of Cacho de Oro are happy to at least have electric light and an outlet to charge their cell phones and stay in communication.

Before the arrival of the solar energy project, some of the families were able to connect to the national grid indirectly through neighbors who were connected. But this meant that they had to pay part of the monthly bill.

“Now we no longer pay part of the bill, which cost us five dollars. We use that money to buy some food, eggs or oil,” Francisco de la Cruz Tulen, a 30-year-old farmer who lives with his wife Milagro Menjívar, 21, and their two small children, told IPS, pleased to have electricity at no monthly cost.

In the rainy season, Tulen, like the rest, rents a small plot of land to plant the staple crops of Central America – corn and beans – to feed the family. He also works on other farms as a day laborer, to earn a little money.

But in the dry season, he leaves the village to look for work in the sugar cane fields. This work, one of the most physically demanding in agriculture, pays between six and 24 dollars a day.

In addition to the solar electrification project in the village of Cacho de Oro in southern El Salvador, reservoirs have been built to capture rainwater and irrigate fruit and timber trees planted to reforest the area and provide food, such as avocados, and keep the aquifers healthy. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

In addition to the solar electrification project in the village of Cacho de Oro in southern El Salvador, reservoirs have been built to capture rainwater and irrigate fruit and timber trees planted to reforest the area and provide food, such as avocados, and keep the aquifers healthy. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

Reservoirs for life

There is no potable water in Cacho de Oro. The families get their water from a spring that sometimes dries up in the dry season and at times they have to buy water in barrels brought in by truck. Each barrel costs 2.5 dollars.

“There are possibilities of getting piped water. A Japanese development cooperation project has dug a well, but we are still waiting to see,” German de la Cruz Tesorero, a resident of the village and the president of the local Communal Development Association (Adescos), an organizational system for small settlements in this Central American country, told IPS.

To maintain water sources and to provide food, the solar electrification project is also accompanied by a reforestation effort in the area. In addition, small reservoirs have been built to irrigate the trees and home gardens.

This has occurred not only in Cacho de Oro, but also in another village located downstream, called Izcacuyo, in the municipality of Jicalapa, also in the department of La Libertad.

Some families have planted vegetable gardens next to their homes in the southern Salvadoran village of Cacho de Oro, growing vegetables such as "pipián", a highly prized local squash, to boost food production in this impoverished part of the country. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

Some families have planted vegetable gardens next to their homes in the southern Salvadoran village of Cacho de Oro, growing vegetables such as “pipián”, a highly prized local squash, to boost food production in this impoverished part of the country. CREDIT: Edgardo Ayala/IPS

The families of Izcacuyo have their own solar electrification project, inaugurated in December 2021, with the difference that they had never received energy from the national grid.

To charge a cell phone, villagers had to go to the canton of La Perla, a 30-minute bus ride away.

The total cost of the local electrification and reforestation project was 38,000 dollars, including 30,000 provided by Fonaes, 4,000 by the municipal government and the other 4,000 from work contributed by the community, which was counted as hours of labor.

Some 5,450 fruit trees have been planted in family plots, including avocado, lemon and mango trees, as well as timber species such as madrecacao (Gliricidia sepium), which offers advantages to the habitat and soils by fixing nitrogen.

The project also provided fertilizer to ensure that the trees grew well.

The municipal government’s idea is that in three or four years, families will be harvesting avocados, mangos and lemons, and part of the production can be marketed along the coastal strip of the department of La Libertad, catering to tourists and hotels and restaurants in the area.

“They will see the benefits in a couple of years,” said William Beltrán, a technician in the Jicalapa municipal government, during a meeting with IPS in San Salvador.

Education Cannot Wait Interviews Leonardo Garnier, Special Adviser of the UN Secretary-General for the Transforming Education Summit

By External Source
May 5 2022 (IPS-Partners)


ECW: Congratulations on your appointment by United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres as the Special Adviser for the Transforming Education Summit. What do you hope to achieve through the Summit and why is it so critical that the world comes together to address the global education crisis around this September’s UN General Assembly?

Leonardo Garnier: In order to understand why it makes sense to convene the “Transforming Education Summit,” the first thing would be to recognize that, in terms of education, we are not doing enough, and we are not doing it well enough. Of course, there was some progress in the past decades, but it was insufficient and highly unequal. The simple truth is that, today, well into the 21st century, millions of children and young people are still not in school, and millions of those who are in school are not really learning, not really achieving the kind of learning that is relevant for their lives in the world they are living in. In most countries, we are lagging behind what was established as Sustainable Development Goal 4: “Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.” And this is ethically unacceptable, socially perverse, politically dangerous but, also, highly irrational and inefficient from an economic perspective. And yet, this is what is happening.

That is why the Summit is so important: it is not a technical, but a political summit. It is a moment of truth for heads of states and leaders of nations and global institutions, where we must commit ourselves not just to accelerate the pace, but actually to reimagine and transform education systems because only through such a radical transformation will we be able to really accomplish the goals of inclusive, quality education for all.

ECW: We seem to be falling behind in our global efforts to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all (SDG4). What must political leaders, public and private sector donors, and other stakeholders do to align our efforts to achieve these goals and why is SDG4 so important in achieving the other goals outlined in the 2030 Agenda?

Leonardo Garnier: This is probably the most obvious and, at the same time, the most difficult question we are facing in education: we know that investing in education is the key, not just to eliminate poverty and reduce inequality but also as an essential part of promoting more peaceful and sustainable development. We also know that investing in education is critical for accelerating economic growth and improving the future income of people and nations. In fact, we know that the rates of return of investing in education are higher than almost any other kind of investment. Then, how do we explain the fact that we insist in under-investing in education?

Aside from the obvious fact that some countries are currently too poor to invest what they would need to invest in education – I will refer to this problem in the next question – I think there are structural and political-economy realities that explain that even in middle-income countries we do not invest enough in education. In order to explain such an absurd situation, I would propose two simplified hypotheses.

One has to do with what we call low-level equilibria or poverty traps, which means that, in countries where low wages and low productivity prevail, education per se is not perceived as an investment, but merely as an expenditure that will not significantly improve national growth and businesses profitability. Thus, the idea of increasing taxes to finance education is rejected by the business community and by the middle class because it is perceived as a negative distortion instead of being understood as a key game changer. The second and related hypothesis has to do with the political economy of such low-level equilibria and the highly unequal character of less developed countries: the elite – whether we are thinking of the 1%, the 10% or the 30% with higher incomes, have their educational needs pretty much solved through expensive private education. Thus, increasing taxes and expenditures for expanding and improving education is quite unattractive for them: they see it as wasting money on other people’s children. And … they don´t really care.

This is why, even if we know that financing education through taxes and the national budget would be a fair and efficient way of promoting both a dynamic and sustainable style of development, it does not appear as attractive to elites in countries characterized by predominantly extractive or low productivity economies. Low wages attract simple, unsophisticated investments, with low productivity, and these investments do not require better educated or skilled workers. Education, as I said, is perceived as a waste.

Low level equilibria do not wither away easily: they must be broken, so that education is not just “perceived”, but actually works as an investment producing the type of better paid and more productive labor force that a dynamic economy needs. For such a transformation, the voice of the majority of the population, which is now denied access to high quality education, has to be heard loud and clear in the political debate. This is not just a technical or economic matter, it is a political matter.

There are examples in recent history of countries that managed to escape low level equilibria, to transform themselves from extractive- or low-productivity economies with a largely poor and uneducated population, into a vibrant and dynamic society capable of both increasing productivity and wages and improving the education of their population. Such is the path towards equitable and sustainable development and that is the path this summit must promote.

ECW: The Transforming Education Summit is an opportunity to rekindle international political and financial commitment to education as a pre-eminent public good. You have an academic and professional background in both economics and education. Why is financing for education – including for global funds like Education Cannot Wait, the UN global fund for education in emergencies – a priority?

Leonardo Garnier: As I said, the reason many countries are not investing enough in education is complex. It is not just because of ignorance, because they “don’t know” how high the return to investing in education can be, but because their economy is based on the rents they extract from access to very cheap labor and natural resources. So, they don’t have the right incentives to either increase the productivity or guarantee the sustainability of such resources. Insofar as the political system reproduces the logic of an extractive economy, poverty and inequality will remain the inevitable result.

But even when a country manages to change the political balance in order to break free from such poverty trap, it is possible that the kind of investments required for such transformation – like investing in high quality education for all – are beyond their reach. For many poor countries, the relative weight of such effort, when compared to their national income or to their public budget, might be just impossible to sustain.

For this reason, in many low- and lower-middle income countries, national efforts would not be enough to adequately finance their educational investment and they will require the significant support of the international community. Unfortunately, the resources and financial instruments that have been available so far for this purpose, are amazingly small and difficult to access. Thus, in the same way we say we need to transform education, we also need to transform these financial instruments so that the amount, or resources necessary, to finance education across the world – and especially for those who need it the most – are really available and accessible.

Some quite innovative proposals are on the table, and I have no doubt that the Transforming Education Summit will be the right place to discuss them and bring them to life.

ECW: When you served as Minister of Education in Costa Rica, you were able to significantly improve the national enrolment rate, especially for marginalized rural and indigenous communities. Are there lessons that can be adapted and applied to help improve enrolment for children impacted by armed conflicts, displacement and other humanitarian crises?

Leonardo Garnier: The first lesson for any successful reform of education, especially when your purpose is to reach those that have traditionally been excluded from the educational system, is to understand the context and the specific reasons for such exclusion. In the case of Costa Rica, the debt-crisis of the 1980s had a dramatic impact on high school enrolment, which went down to a mere 50% and remained under 60% during the last two decades of the 20th century. Reasons for low enrolment had to do with at least three different dynamics.

One, which we can actually call exclusion, had to do with poverty and the fact that, for poor families, even a free high school education can be too expensive, not just because of indirect costs (books, uniforms and so on) but also because of the opportunity cost of the income that young kids could generate when they work instead of studying.

This type of exclusion had to be confronted through social programs that compensate such costs: wide access to school meals, free transportation and – this was very important – a program of conditional cash transfers for poor students, so they wouldn’t need to work to bring some income home. We also made large educational investment in rural areas and Indigenous communities, which were the ones suffering from the highest exclusion from the educational system. This combination of policies had a clear impact in terms of exclusion: urban/rural educational gaps, income-related educational gaps, and also the gap between students from low and high education background were all significantly reduced.

A second problem we identified could be called “expulsion”, and it was the result of academic failure leading to the need to repeat the academic year, which in turn led to a large over-age student population which easily tended to drop out of high school. This had to be confronted both through improvements in the quality of education, curricular reform, and through reforms in the evaluation system and the elimination of the policy that said that a student would have to repeat the whole year even if he or she failed in only one subject.

Finally, there was something I could very well call “repulsion,” which basically means that students drop out when they do not feel really engaged with what they learn at school, and with the whole experience of being a student. This, again, requires curricular innovations aimed at making learning interesting, useful, relevant and attractive for students living in today’s world. Confronting “repulsion” also had to do with a whole set of activities related with the school experience from a holistic perspective: the role of the arts played a key role; sports and games were also important; the participation in student organizations and student governments, and so on. All activities aimed at developing a sense of belonging in the educational community. With respect to Indigenous populations, this also required specific reforms aimed at respecting their culture and world view, and their right to have teachers from their own communities.

ECW: Armed conflicts, forced displacement, climate-induced disasters, COVID-19 and other protracted crises continue to push millions of children and adolescents out of safe, quality, inclusive learning environments. How can we transform the delivery of education in emergencies and build back better from these interconnected crises in places like Afghanistan, Ukraine, the Sahel and beyond? Also, as the UN’s global fund for education in emergencies and protracted crises, Education Cannot Wait and our strategic partners are embracing UN Reform, the Grand Bargain Agreement and Our Common Agenda. How can this reform agenda deliver on the UN promise to “save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, and reaffirm human rights,” as outlined in the United Nations Charter?

Leonardo Garnier: As I said above, inequality has been ingrained in educational systems all over the world, thus reproducing and even widening the already large inequalities that characterize most countries in our planet. Most disadvantaged and vulnerable children, precisely those who would need the earliest and strongest support from public education, tend to be the ones who end up either excluded or receiving the weakest educational services.

But if this is true about what we could call structural inequality, it becomes even more dramatic when we are talking about those children and young persons whose educational opportunities are cut short as a result of particular emergencies arising from situations of conflict, climate change disasters, public health emergencies, or by their forced displacement within and across borders.

Displaced children, especially if they are perceived in some sense as “different” – whether for ethnic, cultural, religious, nationality or other reasons – often face not only educational exclusion, but also various forms of discrimination and aggression (bullying). What should be a mere accidental difference and a situation of vulnerability becomes a source of inequality and even violence. As usual, this tends to affect girls and women in a disproportionate way.

Schools, as educational spaces, should aim exactly for inclusion, not exclusion. Schools should always work as a haven for children facing such dire circumstances; not only as the place where they can continue to learn and develop their capabilities and to reach their potential, but also as safe, inclusive and caring places that makes them feel protected and welcome. Schools – and countries – should promote protection and inclusion in national education systems for refugees, asylum seekers, stateless and any kind of internally displaced children or young persons.

When we talk about “transforming education”, this should be a central piece in the transformation: schools and education systems should make sure that any boy, girl or young person confronting exclusion because of some kind of emergency will be immediately included and cared for and have equal opportunities to fulfil their right to education in emergency contexts. This should be particularly true for girls, young women, for gender diverse persons and for learners with disabilities who tend to face strongest discrimination. This includes not just their access to schools and to learning, but also the necessary emotional and psychological support required.

And yes, this can be expensive, but it is of the essence of human rights. Especially in large emergencies, this would demand significant additional resources to have not only the physical capacity to incorporate new students, but also the availability of adequately trained teachers for emergency contexts.

While highly developed countries might be in a better position to handle such extraordinary needs in times of emergency, it is not always so. And the situation is much more stressful and difficult for less developed countries, who will most certainly need international cooperation to handle the educational demand during unexpected crises. And yet, as has been repeatedly noted, the truth is that education remains one of the most underfunded areas of humanitarian aid, receiving less than 3% of total global humanitarian funding. This has to change. We must ensure sufficient, sustainable, and predictable funding for education in emergencies, including by supporting Education Cannot Wait’s funding need.

ECW: Reading is a key component of education, and we believe that readers (and writers!) are leaders. You’ve written some wonderful children’s books and as well as academic works on society and economics. Could you share the titles of one or two books that have influenced you the most in your life, and why would you recommend them to others to read?

Leonardo Garnier: Reading is many things: reading is useful, as it gives access to other people’s knowledge, which we might need to confront or solve specific problems or to further our own knowledge. Reading is humanly enriching as it lets us experience other people’s lives and tribulations, their feelings and their anguish, as well as their dreams and hopes. Reading puts us in contact with people from other cultures, other times, other places – or with people very much like ourselves. Reading is eye opening – or should I say mind-opening; and reading makes us re-think and re-evaluate our own perspectives, by confronting them with other, different perspectives. Plus, reading is fun and a pleasure, it is a joy. In all these senses, reading is a peculiarly human experience.

There are so many books that I have enjoyed through my life, and that have played an important role for me, that picking two is almost impossible and inevitably unfair.

Many academic books affected my understanding of human society and its complex and unequal development. Among them, I would signal one author – Albert O. Hirschman – because of his immense ability to combine social, economic and political theory with a very peculiar common sense. Of his many books, I would mention “The Strategy of Economic Growth”, “The Passions and the Interests”, and “Exit, Voice and Loyalty” as those which most influenced my own way of thinking about social, economic and political development. But there are so many others…!

And in the field of literature the task is even more difficult, so, again, I will mention three books. I always think of two of them as going very well together: Aldous Huxley’s “Brave New World” and George Orwell’s “1984”: two books written many years ago and which prefigure many of the things we see today in this strange world we’re living in. (We could probably now add Margaret Atwood’s “A Handmaid’s Tale” and have a trilogy). And then, there is the magnificent “Memoirs of Hadrian” by Marguerite Yourcenar. In her notes about this book, she quotes Flaubert as saying: “When the gods no longer existed and Christ had not yet appeared, there was a unique moment, from Cicero to Marcus Aurelius, when man was alone”. And that is what she was looking for in Hadrian; again, in her words: “A large part of my life would be spent trying to define, and then portraying this man: alone, and, at the same time, linked with everything.” As we all are.

ECW: The Transforming Education Summit is a key moment in 2022 to help change the world for the better for children. Please feel free to add in any points here about the Summit which you’d like our readers to know about as the world mobilizes towards it.

Leonardo Garnier: As the great Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire, once said, we have to understand education as the responsible praxis of freedom. Every boy, every girl, every young person must be able to fulfil his or her full personal potential and to become the person he or she wants to be. Everyone should have access to the best education for achieving his or her goals and to actively participate in the construction of their own communities, of their own country and, of course, on the collective construction of the world we want to live in. That is what education is all about: learning to live together in peace in this fragile world.

My personal frustration is that saying this is nothing new. We’ve said it so many times it sounds like a platitude: all kids should be in school; all students should have access to a high-quality education. And yet, as I said at the beginning, the truth is that millions of kids remain out of school, and millions of students are not learning properly what is relevant for them. We always seem to find an excuse: there is not enough time; there is not enough money; resources are scarce; there are many other priorities; and so on.

Priorities, yes. Let’s look around. Let’s ask ourselves the simplest of questions: while millions of kids are denied their right to a good education, is it true that we are devoting every cent we have, every resource we have, to produce – and to consume – something that is more important that these kids’ education? Is this really about priorities? Or is it that really, we just don’t care enough?

I wonder if arguments or excuses for not assigning the necessary resources to fully achieve quality education for all would remain so if those who have the power to allocate those resources were deciding on the education of their own kids, and not just on the education of “other people’s kids.” If we really believe quality education should be for all – really for all – then we should also understand that every kid is our kid. And yes, they should be held accountable if they don’t do so.

This summit should tell not just whether we understand the importance of education for all; but whether we really care.

About Leonardo Garnier

Leonardo Garnier is the Special Adviser to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for the Transforming Education Summit. A Costa Rican national, he is an economist who graduated with a Ph.D. from the New School for Social Research in New York. He also holds a B.A. from the University of Costa Rica, where he is a professor. Garnier was the Minister of Public Education in Costa Rica during two consecutive terms (2006-2014), as well as Minister of National Planning and Economic Policy (1994-1998).

As an academic, he has published articles in journals and books on economic and social issues linked to development, as well as the book “Costa Rica: un país subdesarrollado casi exitoso” (Costa Rica: an almost successful underdeveloped country), written with Laura Cristina Blanco. He is the author of three books of short stories: “Mono Congo y León Panzón“, “Gracias a Usted” and “El sastrecillo ¿valiente?”. Garnier is also the author of multiple opinion articles and actively participates as an opinion maker in digital media and social networks.

More Students on the Move in an Increasingly Complex World: Podcast

By Marty Logan
KATHMANDU, May 5 2022 – This is our third episode on the ongoing movements of people around the world. You can listen to the previous ones, the first about climate migrants and the second on remittances, on any podcast app.

If you’re like me you were surprised to learn about the international students trapped in Ukraine after the Russian invasion in February. In fact, the country had more than 75,000 students from abroad in 2020 according to the Ukraine government.

That figure highlights how student movement globally has changed in recent decades, with many scholars, particularly from the global South, bypassing traditional destinations like the US and UK for lesser known and cheaper centres. But one consistent trend is growth: in 2000 the number of international students globally was estimated at 2 million and by 2019 it had tripled to 6 million.

Our guest today, Rajika Bhandari, understands intimately the movements of international students. She was one herself in the 1990s, travelling from India to the US, where she eventually settled and began a career examining how students travel to learn in foreign countries.

Author of the recently published book America Calling: A Foreign Student in a Country of Possibility, Rajika tells me how certain aspects of the international student experience have remained the same, including financial challenges and adaptation issues. Meanwhile other issues have emerged, like the global rise in nationalism and the growth in academic refugees — young people who flee crises in countries like Ukraine and Afghanistan but are not treated like ‘official’ students in their receiving countries.

Rajika also puts a unique spin on a decades-old topic — explaining how the ‘brain drain’ that steals the young minds that represent the potential of poorer countries is morphing into ‘brain circulation.’ This post-modern movement can have multiple destinations, including students’ home countries, but those nations must be aware and engaged in attracting talent to come home.


Rajika Bhandari’s website. Check out the collection of articles on various aspects of international students.

Rajika Bhandari’s book — American Calling: A Foreign Student in a Country of Possibility



Breaking Menstruation Taboos and Leaving No Girl Behind

Hadiza celebrates receiving her Menstrual Hygiene Management Kit. The 14-year-old is a member of a Girls’ Club at Dar es Salam camp. The kits remove a barrier to schooling in Chad – where children already face significant difficulties in accessing education. The JRS - ACRA - CELIAF project is funded UNICEF and ECW. Credit: Irene Galera, JRS West Africa

Hadiza celebrates receiving her Menstrual Hygiene Management Kit. The 14-year-old is a member of a Girls’ Club at Dar es Salam camp. The kits remove a barrier to schooling in Chad – where children already face significant difficulties in accessing education. The JRS – ACRA – CELIAF project is funded UNICEF and ECW. Credit: Irene Galera, JRS West Africa

By Joyce Chimbi
Lake Chad, May 5 2022 – Fourteen-year-old Hadiza smiles as she clutches a purple bag in her hands. Inside the cloth bag is a Menstrual Hygiene Management kit, an essential item that gives her dignity and enables her to continue with school even when menstruating.

Uncomfortable, in fear of being publicly shamed and ridiculed by their peers when they stain their clothes or period blood runs down their legs for lack of hygiene kits, an estimated one in every ten girls in sub-Saharan Africa miss school during their menstrual cycle.

In emergency and crisis settings, such as Lake Chad’s volatile and precarious security situation, young and adolescent girls are generally twice as likely to be out of school and face significant barriers to education.

Lake Chad is home to an estimated 19,000 refugees, 407,000 internally displaced persons (IDPs), and 29,000 returnees, according to UNHCR statistics. Conflict-induced gender barriers to education and a lack of menstrual hygiene products and education around menstruation have long compounded difficulties girls face within the education system in Chad.

“When girls have their period, they feel ashamed to go to school. The first time I had my period, I felt scared and thought I was sick,” says Hadiza, who attends Espoir School, explaining that she experienced these emotions even though her mother and grandmother had told her what to expect.

To ensure young and adolescent girls in Lake Chad and Logone Oriental region do not face additional inequality and fall further behind in their education, the Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) Chad – in consortium with ACRA Foundation and the Liaison Unit for Women’s Associations (CELIAF in French), and the support of UNICEF – has participated in the production and distribution of Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) kits.

These kits are locally manufactured by the Tchad Helping Hand Foundation.


Girls’ club at Dibina school, Liwa subprefecture were photographed during an ECW and UNICEF visit to their projects in Bagasola. The project promotes Menstrual Hygiene Management for and equal and inclusive access to education in Lake Chad and eastern Logone. Credit: Irene Galera, JRS West Africa

The Girls’ Club at Dibina school, Liwa subprefecture were photographed during an ECW and UNICEF visit to their projects in Bagasola. The project promotes Menstrual Hygiene Management for equal and inclusive access to education in Lake Chad and eastern Logone. Credit: Irene Galera, JRS West Africa

Education Cannot Wait (ECW), the UN’s global fund for education in emergencies and protracted crises, also funds this MHM initiative. The initiative has included several MHM awareness-raising campaigns, training for schools and communities in the area, and the construction of hygiene facilities, such as toilets, to allow girls to properly manage their periods while attending classes.

“We must break down barriers that keep young and adolescent girls, like Hadiza, from the classroom. This is precisely what Education Cannot Wait is doing through our support of menstrual hygiene management for girls in Chad and other crisis-affected countries. Together with our partners on the ground, we ensure that girls no longer miss class during their period. This is a crucial investment in the education and futures of girls,” says ECW Director Yasmine Sherif. “Only when we remove each barrier so that girls can stay in school and complete secondary education can we build more inclusive, equal, resilient, and prosperous communities.”

“The initiative seeks to break the taboo around menstruation in schools. We have come a long way. Teachers are talking about menstrual hygiene management to their students without embarrassment or shame,” says Denis Codjo Hounzangbe, JRS Chad Country Director.

Girls’ Club at Dar es Salam camp celebrate receiving their Menstrual Hygiene Management kits. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) with other partners aim to ensure that adolescent girls don’t miss school during their menstrual cycle. Credit: Irene Galera, JRS West Africa

Girls’ Club at Dar es Salam camp celebrate receiving their Menstrual Hygiene Management kits. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) with other partners aim to ensure that adolescent girls don’t miss school during their menstrual cycle. Credit: Irene Galera, JRS West Africa

“This Menstrual Hygiene Management intervention includes the establishment of girls’ clubs which are helping break the silence around the issue of menstruation. Targeted girls learn about menstruation, start to speak freely about it, and sensitize their peers on the importance of hygiene management kits for regular school attendance.”

Hounzangbe says distributed hygiene products protect girls from public shame, missing classes, or dropping out of school. Additionally, he states that the impact of sensitization around menstruation in the community is evident.

“Some of the students’ mothers are now able to space their births. Before the intervention, they had no knowledge of their menstruation cycle,” he observes.

The education system in Lake Chad is strained, and the learning environment is challenging. However, there are more than 6,000 refugee and internally displaced students attending local schools now receiving much-needed support in menstrual hygiene management, according to Jesuit Refugee Service Chad.

Targeted recipients include refugee girls, returnees, and indigenous pupils, including girls with disabilities such as 15-year-old Malembe, who fled Nigeria to Chad in 2019 for fear of being attacked by insurgents known as Boko Haram.

Dar es Salam camp, Malembe’s new home, includes 5,772 children, 41 teachers, and 39 classrooms. She says the intervention has improved her and other girls’ quality of life.

Teacher Souhadi lauds the initiative for training teachers in MHM, which he says is critical to building a safe and inclusive environment for all students. He teaches at the Malmairi school, whose 621 students include 360 girls. All six teachers are men.

“There was a girl in the classroom, sitting on the mat. It was during the second break, and we were about to go home. When she stood up, her classmates noticed she was stained with blood,” he says.

“The girl was ashamed and did not want to get back up. I approached the girl to console her. I told her that she should not be ashamed, that she was not the only one having a period and would not be the last one either. That it is natural for all women and girls.”

The teacher finally convinced the shaken girl not to stay home because of her period. The teachers washed the stained mat, and the next day, the girl came to school and has since attended school without fail.

Souhadi asserts that the MHM training was beneficial for all teachers “because we learned to find the correct words to reassure girls that what is happening to them is a natural process.”

Bana Gana, 15, agrees. Menstruation used to prevent her from going to school.

“Before the JRS menstrual hygiene management kit, I had nothing to wear during my period. I just wore a skirt or underwear without any protection,” she recalls.

Against the backdrop of Chad having a very young population, with an estimated 58 percent of the entire population being under 20 years of age, the importance of improving access to education for all children cannot be overemphasized.

IPS would like to thank JRS and Irene Galera, JRS West Africa and Great Lakes Communications Officer, for collecting the testimonials.

IPS UN Bureau Report


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Pluribus Networks and Tech Data announce partnership in Asia Pacific & Japan

SINGAPORE and SANTA CLARA, CA, USA, May 04, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Tech Data, a TD SYNNEX Company, and Pluribus Networks have today announced a new partnership which will leverage Pluribus Networks' unique vision of Unified Cloud Networking and their Unified Cloud Fabric solution to accelerate the digital and network transformation journey for customers across the Asia Pacific & Japan region.

"With Asia Pacific region's data center market slated to grow at a CAGR of 6.3 percent during 2022 "" 2027 with investments of USD94 billion by 20271, this partnership with Pluribus Networks is timely and perfectly complements our rich data center infrastructure solutions portfolio," shared Anand Chakravarthy, Head of Business Development for Networking, Tech Data Asia Pacific & Japan. "We are excited to introduce Pluribus Networks' Unified Cloud Fabric solution and Netvisor ONE networking operating system, which we predict will be game–changers for our data center infrastructure customers and partners."

"We are delighted to welcome Tech Data to the Pluribus Partners First Program as a distributor and to tap into Tech Data's vast reach across the Asia Pacific & Japan region's Channel Partner Community, while also complementing their existing solutions portfolio," said Nitin Acharekar, Head of APAC Sales, Pluribus Networks. "Both companies are aligned in our vision of incubating and growing disruptive technologies, as well as simplifying the go–to–market for all channel partners in the region."

The benefits of this new partnership include:

  • Faster time–to–market & enriched datacenter infrastructure offerings for all channel partners
  • Easy access to Pluribus Networks' uniquely differentiated network solutions
  • Value–added services such as pre and post–sales support to partners and customers

The Pluribus Unified Cloud Fabric solution is a next generation data center fabric that unifies and automates networking and distributed security across switches and servers, overlay and underlay networks and distributed cloud data centers. Based on the principles of open networking, the SDN automated fabric reduces network operations tasks by orders of magnitude, strengthens data center security with microsegmentation and enables pervasive network visibility, all at the lowest total cost of ownership.

To learn more about the Unified Cloud Fabric please visit–cloud–fabric/

To learn more about Tech Data's Modern Data Center offerings, please visit:–center–solutions/

1Ariston Advisory & Intelligence, APAC Data Center Market "" Industry Outlook & Forecast 2022– 2027, January 2022

About Tech Data

Tech Data, a TD SYNNEX (NYSE: SNX) company, is a leading global distributor and solutions aggregator for the IT ecosystem. We're an innovative partner helping more than 150,000 customers in 100+ countries to maximize the value of technology investments, demonstrate business outcomes and unlock growth opportunities. Headquartered in Clearwater, Florida, and Fremont, California, TD SYNNEX' 22,000 co–workers are dedicated to uniting compelling IT products, services and solutions from 1,500+ best–in–class technology vendors. Our edge–to–cloud portfolio is anchored in some of the highest–growth technology segments including cloud, cybersecurity, big data/analytics, IoT, mobility and everything as a service. TD SYNNEX is committed to serving customers and communities, and we believe we can have a positive impact on our people and our planet, intentionally acting as a respected corporate citizen. We aspire to be a diverse and inclusive employer of choice for talent across the IT ecosystem. For more information, visit or follow us on Twitter, LinkedIn, Facebook and Instagram.

About Pluribus Networks

Pluribus Networks, the Unified Cloud Networking company, delivers solutions based on the principles of open networking and distributed, controllerless SDN automation. The Linux–based Netvisor ONE operating system and the Unified Cloud Fabric software have been purpose built to deliver radically automated and simplified cloud networking along with superior economics by leveraging white box switches from open networking partners as well as Pluribus' own Freedom Series of switches. The Unified Cloud Fabric is optimized to deliver a modern cloud network fabric across distributed clouds and data center sites with rich services, automated operations, intrinsic security and visibility and no single point of failure. Pluribus is deployed by hundreds of customers, including more than 100 tier one mobile network operators, in mission critical networks around the globe. Visit Pluribus Networks to learn more.